Water forms the lifeline for all living beings. All the known civilizations and species of flora and fauna have flourished with water source as the base and it is true in the present context too.
Availability of drinking water and provision of sanitation facilities are the basic minimum requirements for healthy living. Water supply and sanitation, being the two most important urban services, have wide ranging impact on human health, quality of life, environment and productivity. Despite the technological advancements, the global scenario still remains grim, as all the inhabitants of the world do not have access to safe water and adequate sanitation.
In most urban areas, the population is increasing rapidly and the issue of supplying adequate water to meet societal needs and to ensure equity in access to water is one of the most urgent and significant challenges faced by the policy-makers. With respect to the physical alternatives to fulfill sustainable management of freshwater, there are two solutions: finding alternate or additional water resources using conventional centralized approaches; or utilizing the limited amount of water resources available in a more efficient way. To date, much attention has been given to the first option and only limited attention has been given to optimising water management systems.
Among the various technologies to augment freshwater resources, rainwater harvesting and utilisation is a decentralised,environmentally sound solution, which can avoid many environmental problems often caused by conventional large-scale projects using centralised approaches.
Rainwater Harvesting (RWH) is the process and act of collecting and storing rainwater in a scientific and controlled manner for future use or recharging it into the ground. Rain water from clean catchments (roof) can be routed properly through suitable conduits into a filter. Filtered water can be stored in storage structures for subsequent use. Surface run off can be used to recharge the groundwater. This is achieved by recharge wells and/or direct or indirect tube-well recharge.
The process of rainwater harvesting would encompass catching rainwater, directing it to an appropriate location, filtering it if required and storing it for use. Storage could be in tanks, sumps, ponds or lakes wherever appropriate and conditions permitting recharge of groundwater would also qualify as storage. Harvested water could be used immediately as a first choice thus saving city level supplies or groundwater for a future date or a decision could be taken to store it for later use, say during water shortage days. Domestic rainwater harvesting or rooftop rainwater harvesting is the technique through which rainwater is captured from roof catchments and stored in tanks/reservoirs/ground water aquifers. It also consists of conservation of rooftop rainwater in urban areas and utilizing it to augment ground water storage by artificial recharge. It requires connecting the outlet pipe from rooftop to divert collected water to existing well/tube well/bore well or a specially designed well. Rooftop harvested rainwater is more safe for drinking purposes than the runoff harvested water.
Rooftop harvesting needs to have safe storage facilities to keep the water fit for drinking. First flush of rainwater is discarded. A number of alternative technologies are available for rooftop harvesting and storage to suit the varying situations and the budgets.
Use of Harvested Rainwater :
The reverse osmosis system is a cutting edge tool against the water impurities and is the most efficient and effective method of water purification known to man today. Reverse Osmosis (RO) removes impurities as small as 0.0001 microns in size (a human hair is 50-60 microns thick) cleansing water of all biological impurities, suspended particles, dissolved solids (TDS), salts, metals, and chemicals. Most non-RO systems can filter particles only up to 5-10 microns in size, leaving behind almost all dissolved impurities (like bad tasting salts) and some fine physical impurities. When water is passed through a semipermeable membrane under pressure, all particles larger than 0.0001 micron are captured in layers of the membrane allowing only the water molecules pass through the membrane.
The Reverse Osmosis technology is used in areas like Healthcare and Scientific research where purity is not just important but critical. It has now been adapted for use in homes and offices to provide the same level of purity at minimal cost.
Our Ro Plants are manufactured with the utmost precision to remove contaminants from water. Our Ro Plants are manufacturing in accordance with the industry set standards and quality procedures.This reverse osmosis system has become a part of thousands of lives to obtain drinkable water at the lowest power consumption and low cost, which does not need any extra care and maintenance during the lifespan.
A safe water supply is an essential part of camp hygiene. Water intake for adults in temperate conditions is around 3 litres per day, but this can rise to as much as 10 liters per day in hot climates because of loss due to sweating. In addition, around 4 litres of water per person per day will be needed for cooking and washing up. Therefore considerable supplies may be required both at base camp and by field parties. In many cases, water obtained from rivers, lakes and ponds, as well as from taps and wells, carries a considerable risk of contamination. Spring water collected away from human habitation may be safer but it would be wise to treat even this water source.
Before treating the water to kill any organisms, organic matter and silt need to be removed. This can pose considerable problems if you are trying to obtain supplies for a large expedition, where sedimentation tanks and large ceramic filters would need to be employed.
Various methods for water purification will be described in this chapter. Some are more suitable for the base camp and others for field workers. Before deciding on the system to use it is also important to consider the likely infective organisms and the risk posed by them to the expedition.